Matthias Ambrosius was born in 1975 in Bernkastel-Kues and grew up in Wittlich-Lüxem. From 1993 to 1998 he was a saxophonist in the German Federal Youth Jazz Orchestra under the direction of Peter Herbolzheimerr. As a pianist, he won the first prize for piano accompaniment in the 1997 Federal German "Jugend musiziert" Competition.
After training as a banker, Matthias Ambrosius initially took private clarinet lessons from Karl-Heinz Steffens before being accepted to his clarinet class at the Music Academy in Hanover. After transferring to the Music Academy in Weimar he continued his studies there with Martin Spangenberg. In 2003 he completed his artistic studies with a diploma and an option for the master class.
From 1999, Matthias Ambrosius played as a substitute and as a scholarship student in the Academy of the Symphonieorchester des Bayerischen Rundfunks. In 2001, he signed a contract as permanent substitute bass clarinetist in the Münchner Rundfunkorchester. He served as principal clarinetist at the State Theatre in Karlsruhe, in the Münchner Rundfunkorchester and the Saxon Staatskapelle Dresden and made guest appearances with the RSO Stuttgart, the Bavarian State Opera in Munich and the Symphonieorchester des Bayerischen Rundfunks. Since May of 2010, he serves as second clarinetist in the Munich Philharmonic.
His activity as clarinetist and saxophonist further extends to solo and chamber music engagements with a variety of ensembles, such as the Scharoun Ensemble of the Berlin Philharmonic, the Ensemble Modern, the Ensemble Kontraste, the Bach Kollegium Munich, the Munich Chamber Orchestra, the Ensemble Amadée. He has appeared as a soloist at the Schleswig-Holstein Music Festival and the Munich Biennale.